English Student Works

РефератNews from Belarus: Another artistic summit claimed

People’s Artist of Belarus Leonid Shchemelev once again reminds us of his artistic credo, with his new personal exhibition

By Victor Mikhailov

leonid shchemelev

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РефератResidents and Non-residents taxation in the Kazakhstan

The taxes are a necessary part economic activity in a society from the moment of occurrence the states. Development and change of the forms of the state system always lead to transformation of tax system. Taxes – is basic sources of incomes of the state in a modern civilized society. Besides this especially financial function, taxes are used for economic influence of the state on public manufacture, its structure, and on condition of scientific and technical progress. Among economic levers, through which the state influences market economy, the important place belongs to the taxes. In conditions of market economy any state widely uses tax policy as the regulator of influence on the negative event in the market.

The taxes, as well as all tax system, are the powerful tool of management of economy in terms of the market. The application of the taxes is one of economic methods of management and maintenance of interrelation of nation-wide interests with commercial interests of the businessmen and enterprises, independent from departmental subordination, patterns of ownership and legal form of the enterprise. 

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РефератKazakhstani tenge

Kazakhstan was one of the last countries of CIS to introduce a national currency. In 1991 a "special group" of designers was created: Mendybay Alin, Timur Suleymenov, Asimsaly Duzelkhanov and Khayrulla Gabzhalilov. On November 12, 1993, a decree of the President of Kazakhstan, "About introducing national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan", was issued. On November 15, 1993, the tenge was brought into circulation. As such, November 15 is celebrated as the "Day of national currency of Republic of Kazakhstan". In 1995, a tenge printing factory was opened in Kazakhstan. The first consignment of tenge was printed abroad, in the U.K.. The first coins were minted in Germany.
March 20, two days before Navruz holiday, National Bank of Kazakhstan has approved graphical symbol for tenge.

In 1993, the National Bank of Kazakhstan issued notes in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 tiyn, 1, 3, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 tenge. These were followed by 500 and 1000 tenge notes in 1994. 2000 tenge notes were introduced in 1996, with 5000 tenge in 1998 and 10,000 tenge in 2003.

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РефератRelationship between Kazakhstan and Russia

In a context of events, which have taken place in region after September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little has varied, as well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.
In these conditions of one of important external policies of tasks of Kazakhstan is the adjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia, which would correspond by modern geopolitical realities and long-term interests of our country.
Central Asia and Caspian Sea go into a region of traditional interests of Russia.
In this region it always had the important national interests, which, however, in different periods were defined by different circumstances and factors.

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РефератSmall Business lending in Kazakhstan

At the times of Soviet Union, there wasn’t not only small or middle business, there was not any business at all, everything was public and there was no owners; so all countries of ex-Soviet Union have to develop their small enterprises intensively. For Kazakhstan, it was very difficult, mainly because Kazakhstan had more mineral industry and a little of agriculture, for the most part - grain.

Processing industry was very weak. When USSR broke up and young Kazakhstan had to care about itself, enterprises needed huge amounts of money to buy necessary equipment, employ qualified workers to work in mineral industry and to develop processing industry, which demand, by the way, more expenses. However, firstly, government and banks did not have enough money to give credits to the enterprises and secondly, it was much easier to create monopoly. Thus, our system of supporting small business was not correct from the very beginning. But still, 10 years later when it seems that Kazakhstan had grown roots and almost everything going rather well, our system of supporting small business in a bad condition (see Appendix 1).

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РефератFreedom of Kazakhstani economy

Kazakhstan's economy is 60.4 percent free, according to our 2007 assessment, which makes it the world's 75th freest economy. Its overall score is 0.8 percentage point lower than last year, partially reflecting new methodological detail. Kazakhstan is ranked 10th out of 30 countries in the Asia–Pacific region, and its overall score is just above the regional average. 

Kazakhstan scores highly in fiscal freedom, freedom from government, and labor freedom. The top income and corporate tax rates are a moderate 20 percent and 30 percent, respectively. The government also imposes additional taxes, however, and overall tax revenue is somewhat high as a percentage of GDP. Government expenditure is also somewhat high, although the government has gradually been privatizing businesses. Kazakhstan has a highly flexible labor system.

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РефератThe president of Kazakhstan

He is selected in April, 1990 

By national voting it is selected on December, 1st, 1991 

The term of appointment is prolonged on a national referendum on April, 29th, 1995 

On January, 10th, 1999 on an alternative basis it is again selected by the President of Republic Kazakhstan for seven-year term, having received 79,78 percent of voices казахстанцев, taken part in voting. 

On April, 24th, 1990 N.A.Nazarbaev is selected by the first President Kazakh ССР. 

On April, 29th, 1995 on results of a national referendum of power of the President of Republic Kazakhstan have been prolonged till 2000. 

Supreme commander in chief Armed forces РК, Chairman of Secutiry council RK, Chairman of Assembly of people of Kazakhstan, Chairman of the World Association of Kazakhs. 

Награжден the maximum awards and medals of Kazakhstan, Russia, Uzbekistan and of some foreign countries. 

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РефератMajor actors in the oil and gas industry of Kazakhstan

The Tengiz oil field was discovered in 1979. This oil deposit is 19 km long and 21 km wide, the deepest among all the known developed super-giant oilfields. This oil field had to be developed under very harsh conditions (considerable depth, abnormally high strata pressure, high temperature, high content of hydrogen sulphide, acid components, etc.) The discovery and assessment of Tengiz doubled Kazakhstan’s oil reserves. Its size and favourable geographic and economic location, including closeness to main pipelines, power transfer lines, railway and a large industrial center, made it a priority for the national industrial strategy. Commercial oil production in Tengiz started in 1991.

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РефератGovernment Securities in Kazakhstan

1. Introduction
2. GS. Overview.
2.1. The types of government securities;
2.2. Development of GS in primary and secondary markets;
2.3. The technical infrastructure;
2.4. The legal base;
2.5. Development of external borrowing of the Ministry of Finance.
3. General notes about GS in Kazakhstan.
3.1. Macroeconomic indicators (end of period);
3.2. Market overview;
3.3. Privatization;
3.4. Clearing and settlement system on securities market;
3.5. Regulatory and Supervisory Structure;
3.6. Corporate Governance.
4. Structure of national currency denominated Government Securities in Circulation (2001-2007).
5. The basic direction of the further development of GS market.
6. Summary.
7. References.
8. Abbreviations. 

The importance of the research.

The global practice shows, that the security markets are the effective mechanism of mobilization of financial resources and savings of the population, optimum redistribution of means in a national economy.

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РефератEconomy of Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan is the largest nation and economy in Central Asia, and the ninth largest nation by area in the world. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals. It also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production, as well as developed space infrastructure, which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle. The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts; both species grow wild there. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment, tractors, agricultural machinery, and some military items.

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